Organization of education in war conditions: recommendations of international organizations
PDF (Українська)
HTML (Українська)

Abstract views: 75

Keywords

armed conflicts
international organizations
non-governmental organizations
education in conditions of war
educational process
continuity of education

How to Cite

Lokshyna О., Glushko О., Dzhurylo А., Kravchenko С., Maksymenko О., Nikolska Н., & Shparyk О. (2022). Organization of education in war conditions: recommendations of international organizations. Ukrainian Educational Journal, (2), 5–18. https://doi.org/10.32405/2411-1317-2022-2-5-18

Abstract

Стаття присвячена проблемі виховання в умовах збройних конфліктів, зокрема організації навчання та розвитку механізмів захисту освіти в умовах надзвичайних ситуацій та бойових дій. Метою даного дослідження є розгляд рекомендацій міжнародних та неурядових організацій щодо забезпечення навчально-виховного процесу в умовах військових конфліктів.
It is noted that education in armed conflicts, the organization of training in military conflicts and the resumption of the educational process after hostilities are the subject of the careful study of international organizations, including UNESCO, UNICEF, OECD, German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ), Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack (GCPEA), Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) and others.
The motives of the attack on education, direct and long-term negative consequences of the impact on the education system in the interpretation of these organizations are analyzed. Among the direct negative impacts included by UNESCO are numerous deaths of educators, pupils, students and managers due to explosions and shootings; deliberate killings of individual educators, pupils, students and trade unionists; destruction of educational buildings / infrastructure by explosions, arson, robberies; illegal detention, “disappearance”, torture of teachers, scientists and trade unionists; abduction and / or rape of pupils, students, teachers, lecturers and officials, forced recruitment of child soldiers.
It is accented that the leading international organizations among them the UN and its specialized agencies UNESCO and UNICEF, OECD, EU show synergies to protect the right to education for all, as well as to promote continuing education in emergencies and war.
It is concluded that there are many ways to continue the educational process in the context of hostilities which educators can consider in accordance with each situation. Ensuring the continuation of the learning process means providing education in a different way, so that students will have access to learning despite the interruption of the normal education system. Methods of alternative education should include, but are not limited to, changing places of study, non-formal learning programs, accelerating learning, temporary places of study or home schools. In some situations, distance and open learning methods may be used.

https://doi.org/10.32405/2411-1317-2022-2-5-18
PDF (Українська)
HTML (Українська)

References

Міністерство освіти і науки України. (2022). Освіта під загрозою. https://saveschools.in.ua/

Офіс Генпрокурора України. (2022, April 26). Ювенальні прокурори: 226 дітей загинули и Україні через збройну агресію РФ. https://www.gp.gov.ua/

Akbulut-Yuksel, M. (2014). Children of war: The long-run effects of large-scale physical destruction and warfare on children. Journal of Human Resources, 49(3), 634–662.

Akresh, R. and De Walque, D. (2008). Armed conflict and schooling: Evidence from the 1994 Rwandan genocide. The World Bank.

Akresh, R. et al. (2016). Climate change, conflict, and children. Technical report, Households in Conflict Network Working Paper.

Alfano, M. and Görlach, J.-S. (2019). Terrorism, education, and the role of perceptions: Evidence from al-Shabaab attacks in Kenya. Technical report, Households in Conflict Network Working Paper.

Annan, J., Blattman, C., Mazurana, D., and Carlson, K. (2011). Civil war, reintegration, and gender in Northern Uganda. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 55(6), 877–908.

Blattman, C. and Annan, J. (2010). The consequences of child soldiering. The Review of Rconomics and Statistics, 92(4), 882–898.

Cano, A. F. and Cervantes-Duarte, L. (2016). Impact of Armed Conflicts on Education and Educational Agents:

A Multivocal Review. Revista Electrónica Educare, 20(3), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.15359/ree.20-3.12

Cerna, L. (2019). Refugee education: Integration models and practices in OECD countries. OECD Education Working Papers. https://doi.org/10.1787/a3251a00-en

Chamarbagwala, R. and Mor´an, H. E. (2011). The human capital consequences of civil war: Evidence from Guatemala. Journal of Development Economics, 94(1), 41–61.

GCPEA. (2015, December). Що Міністерства можуть зробити для захисту навчальних закладів від нападів та використання у військових цілях. Комплекс дій. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from http://protectingeducation.org/wp-content/uploads/what_ministries_can_do_ukr.pdf

GCPEA. (2016, September). Що можуть зробити школи, щоб захистити себе від нападів та від використання у війських цілях. Практичний посібник. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from http://protectingeducation.org/wp-content/uploads/what_schools_ukr.pdf

GCPEA. (2022, March 10). Statement by GCPEA Executive Director, Diya Nijhowne, on Attacks on Education in Ukraine. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://protectingeducation.org/news/statement-by-gcpea-executive-director-diya-nijhowne-on-attacks-on-education-in-ukraine/

Gerardino, M. P. (2014). The effect of violence on the educational gender gap. Unpublished manuscript.

Glasgow, J. N., & Baer, A. L. (2011). Lives beyond suffering: The child soldiers of African Wars. English Journal, 100(6), 68–77.

González L. H., & Bedmar M. (2012). Población infantil en situación de desplazamiento forzado en Colombia y sus manifiestaciones de ciudadanía [Children in situation of displacement in Colombia and its manifestations of citizenship]. Revista Paz y Conflictos, 5, 120–137. http://www.ugr.es/~revpaz/numeros/rpc_n5_

_completo.pdf

GTZ. (2004, December 1). Education and conflict: The role of education in the creation, prevention and resolution of societal crises - Consequences for development cooperation. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://reliefweb.int/report/world/education-and-conflict-role-education-creation-prevention-and-resolution-societal

INEE. (2010, December 3). INEE Minimum Standards Handbook. https://inee.org/minimum-standards

Justino, P., Leone, M., and Salardi, P. (2013). Short-and long-term impact of violence on education: The case of Timor Leste. The World Bank Economic Review, 28(2), 320–353.

Kapor-Stanulovic, N. (1999). Encounter with suffering. American Psychologist, 54(11), 1020–1027. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0088215

Kesternich, I., Siflinger, B., Smith, J. P., and Winter, J. K. (2014). The effects of World War II on economic and health outcomes across Europe. Review of Economics and Statistics, 96(1), 103–118.

Leon, G. (2012). Civil conflict and human capital accumulation the long-term effects of political violence in Per´u. Journal of Human Resources, 47(4), 991–1022.

López, H., & Wodon, Q. (2005). The economic impact of armed conflict in Rwanda. Journal of African Economies, 14(4), 586-602. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jae/eji021

Massad, S. G., Nieto, F. J., Palta, M., Smith, M., Clark, R., & Thabet, A. A. (2012). Nutritional status of Palestinian preschoolers in the Gaza Strip: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 11, 12–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-27

Minoiu, C. and Shemyakina, O. N. (2014). Armed conflict, household victimization, and child health in Cˆote d’Ivoire. Journal of Development Economics, 108, 237–255.

Minou, T. (2006). The possible models of creative therapies for the child victims of war and armed conflict. Asia Pacific Education Review, 7(2), 229–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03031546

Namen, O., Prem, M., and Vargas, J. F. (2020). The human capital peace dividend. Technical report, Households in Conflict Network Working Paper.

O’Malley, B. (2007). Education under attack, 2007: a global study on targeted political and military violence against education staff, students, teachers, union and government officials, and institutions. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000186303

O’Malley, B. (2010). Education under attack, 2010: a global study on targeted political and military violence against education staff, students, teachers, union and government officials, aid workers and institutions. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000186809

Parlow, A. (2011). Education and armed conflict: The Kashmir insurgency in the nineties. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/38010/

Pedersen, J., & Sommerfelt, T. (2007). Studying children in armed conflict: Data production, social indicators and analysis. Social Indicators Research, 84(3), 251–269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-007-9117-3

PRIO. (2020, November 23). Children Affected by Armed Conflict, 1990–2019. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/%C3%98stby%2C%20Rustad%20%26%20Tollefsen%20-%20Children%20Affected%20by%20Armed%20Conflict%2C%201990%E2%80%932019%20-%20Conflict%20Trends%206-2020.pdf

Rieder, M., & Choonara, I. (2012). Armed conflict and child health. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 97(1), 59–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.2009.178186

Roy, S. and Singh, P. (2016). Gender bias in education during conflict: Evidence from Assam. Technical report, WIDER Working Paper.

Safe Schools Declaration. (2015). Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/departementene/ud/vedlegg/utvikling/safe_schools_declaration.pdf

Shemyakina, O. (2011). The effect of armed conflict on accumulation of schooling: Results from Tajikistan. Journal of Development Economics, 95(2), 186–200.

Singh, P. and Shemyakina, O. N. (2016). Gender-differential effects of terrorism on education: The case of the 1981-1993 Punjab insurgency. Economics of Education Review, 54, 185–210.

Spitzer, H., & Twikirize, J. M. (2012). War-affected children in Northern Uganda: No easy path to normality. International Social Work, 56(1), 67–79. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020872812459067

Swee, E. L. (2015). On war intensity and schooling attainment: The case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. European Journal of Political Economy, 40, 158–172.

UNHCR. (2019). Refugee education 2030: A Strategy for Refugee Inclusion. https://www.unhcr.org/5d651da88d7.pdf

UNICEF. (2017, September 18). 27 million children out of school in conflict zones. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/27-million-children-out-school-conflict-zones

Valente, C. (2014). Education and civil conflict in Nepal. TheWorld Bank Economic Review, 28(2), 354–383.

Verwimp, P. and Van Bavel, J. (2014). Schooling, violent conflict, and gender in Burundi. The World Bank Economic Review, 28(2), 384–411.

Akbulut-Yuksel, M. (2014). Children of war: The long-run effects of large-scale physical destruction and warfare on children. Journal of Human Resources, 49(3), 634–662.

Akresh, R. and De Walque, D. (2008). Armed conflict and schooling: Evidence from the 1994 Rwandan genocide. The World Bank.

Akresh, R. et al. (2016). Climate change, conflict, and children. Technical report, Households in Conflict Network Working Paper.

Alfano, M. and Görlach, J.-S. (2019). Terrorism, education, and the role of perceptions: Evidence from al-Shabaab attacks in Kenya. Technical report, Households in Conflict Network Working Paper.

Annan, J., Blattman, C., Mazurana, D., and Carlson, K. (2011). Civil war, reintegration, and gender in Northern Uganda. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 55(6), 877–908.

Blattman, C. and Annan, J. (2010). The consequences of child soldiering. The Review of Rconomics and Statistics, 92(4), 882–898.

Cano, A. F. and Cervantes-Duarte, L. (2016). Impact of Armed Conflicts on Education and Educational Agents: A Multivocal Review. Revista Electrónica Educare, 20(3), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.15359/ree.20-3.12

Cerna, L. (2019). Refugee education: Integration models and practices in OECD countries. OECD Education Working Papers. https://doi.org/10.1787/a3251a00-en

Chamarbagwala, R. and Mor´an, H. E. (2011). The human capital consequences of civil war: Evidence from Guatemala. Journal of Development Economics, 94(1), 41–61.

GCPEA. (2015, December). Shcho Ministerstva mozhut zrobyty dlia zakhystu navchalnykh zakladiv vid napadiv ta vykorystannia u viiskovykh tsiliakh. Kompleks dii. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from http://protectingeducation.org/wp-content/uploads/what_ministries_can_do_ukr.pdf

GCPEA. (2016, September). Shcho mozhut zrobyty shkoly, shchob zakhystyty sebe vid napadiv ta vid vykorystannia u viiskykh tsiliakh. Praktychnyi posibnyk. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from http://protectingeducation.org/wp-content/uploads/what_schools_ukr.pdf

GCPEA. (2022, March 10). Statement by GCPEA Executive Director, Diya Nijhowne, on Attacks on Education in Ukraine. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://protectingeducation.org/news/statement-by-gcpea-executive-director-diya-nijhowne-on-attacks-on-education-in-ukraine/

Gerardino, M. P. (2014). The effect of violence on the educational gender gap. Unpublished manuscript.

Glasgow, J. N., & Baer, A. L. (2011). Lives beyond suffering: The child soldiers of African Wars. English Journal, 100(6), 68–77.

González L. H., & Bedmar M. (2012). Población infantil en situación de desplazamiento forzado en Colombia y sus manifiestaciones de ciudadanía [Children in situation of displacement in Colombia and its manifestations of citizenship]. Revista Paz y Conflictos, 5, 120–137. http://www.ugr.es/~revpaz/numeros/rpc_n5_2012_completo.pdf

GTZ. (2004, December 1). Education and conflict: The role of education in the creation, prevention and resolution of societal crises - Consequences for development cooperation. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://reliefweb.int/report/world/education-and-conflict-role-education-creation-prevention-and-resolution-societal

INEE. (2010, December 3). INEE Minimum Standards Handbook. https://inee.org/minimum-standards

Justino, P., Leone, M., and Salardi, P. (2013). Short-and long-term impact of violence on education: The case of Timor Leste. The World Bank Economic Review, 28(2), 320–353.

Kapor-Stanulovic, N. (1999). Encounter with suffering. American Psychologist, 54(11), 1020–1027. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0088215

Kesternich, I., Siflinger, B., Smith, J. P., and Winter, J. K. (2014). The effects of World War II on economic and health outcomes across Europe. Review of Economics and Statistics, 96(1), 103–118.

Leon, G. (2012). Civil conflict and human capital accumulation the long-term effects of political violence in Per´u. Journal of Human Resources, 47(4), 991–1022.

López, H., & Wodon, Q. (2005). The economic impact of armed conflict in Rwanda. Journal of African Economies, 14(4), 586-602. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jae/eji021

Massad, S. G., Nieto, F. J., Palta, M., Smith, M., Clark, R., & Thabet, A. A. (2012). Nutritional status of Palestinian preschoolers in the Gaza Strip: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 11, 12–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-27

Ministerstvo osvity i nauky Ukrainy. (2022). Osvita pid zahrozoiu. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://saveschools.in.ua/

Minoiu, C. and Shemyakina, O. N. (2014). Armed conflict, household victimization, and child health in Cˆote d’Ivoire. Journal of Development Economics, 108, 237–255.

Minou, T. (2006). The possible models of creative therapies for the child victims of war and armed conflict. Asia Pacific Education Review, 7(2), 229–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03031546

Namen, O., Prem, M., and Vargas, J. F. (2020). The human capital peace dividend. Technical report, Households in Conflict Network Working Paper.

Ofis Henprokurora Ukrainy. (2022, April 26). Yuvenalni prokurory: 226 ditei zahynuly v Ukraini cherez zbroinu ahresiiu RF. Retrieved May 11, 2022, from https://www.gp.gov.ua/

O’Malley, B. (2007). Education under attack, 2007: a global study on targeted political and military violence against education staff, students, teachers, union and government officials, and institutions. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000186303

O’Malley, B. (2010). Education under attack, 2010: a global study on targeted political and military violence against education staff, students, teachers, union and government officials, aid workers and institutions. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000186809

Parlow, A. (2011). Education and armed conflict: The Kashmir insurgency in the nineties. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/38010/

Pedersen, J., & Sommerfelt, T. (2007). Studying children in armed conflict: Data production, social indicators and analysis. Social Indicators Research, 84(3), 251–269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-007-9117-3

PRIO. (2020, November 23). Children Affected by Armed Conflict, 1990–2019. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/%C3%98stby%2C%20Rustad%20%26%20Tollefsen%20-%20Children%20Affected%20by%20Armed%20Conflict%2C%201990%E2%80%932019%20-%20Conflict%20Trends%206-2020.pdf

Rieder, M., & Choonara, I. (2012). Armed conflict and child health. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 97(1), 59–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.2009.178186

Roy, S. and Singh, P. (2016). Gender bias in education during conflict: Evidence from Assam. Technical report, WIDER Working Paper.

Safe Schools Declaration. (2015). Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/departementene/ud/vedlegg/utvikling/safe_schools_declaration.pdf

Shemyakina, O. (2011). The effect of armed conflict on accumulation of schooling: Results from Tajikistan. Journal of Development Economics, 95(2), 186–200.

Singh, P. and Shemyakina, O. N. (2016). Gender-differential effects of terrorism on education: The case of the 1981-1993 Punjab insurgency. Economics of Education Review, 54, 185–210.

Spitzer, H., & Twikirize, J. M. (2012). War-affected children in Northern Uganda: No easy path to normality. International Social Work, 56(1), 67–79. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020872812459067

Swee, E. L. (2015). On war intensity and schooling attainment: The case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. European Journal of Political Economy, 40, 158–172.

UNHCR. (2019). Refugee education 2030: A Strategy for Refugee Inclusion. https://www.unhcr.org/5d651da88d7.pdf

UNICEF. (2017, September 18). 27 million children out of school in conflict zones. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/27-million-children-out-school-conflict-zones

Valente, C. (2014). Education and civil conflict in Nepal. TheWorld Bank Economic Review, 28(2), 354–383.

Verwimp, P. and Van Bavel, J. (2014). Schooling, violent conflict, and gender in Burundi. The World Bank Economic Review, 28(2), 384–411.

Akbulut-Yuksel, M. (2014). Children of war: The long-run effects of large-scale physical destruction and warfare on children. Journal of Human Resources, 49(3), 634–662.

Akresh, R. and De Walque, D. (2008). Armed conflict and schooling: Evidence from the 1994 Rwandan genocide. The World Bank.

Akresh, R. et al. (2016). Climate change, conflict, and children. Technical report, Households in Conflict Network Working Paper.

Alfano, M. and Görlach, J.-S. (2019). Terrorism, education, and the role of perceptions: Evidence from al-Shabaab attacks in Kenya. Technical report, Households in Conflict Network Working Paper.

Annan, J., Blattman, C., Mazurana, D., and Carlson, K. (2011). Civil war, reintegration, and gender in Northern Uganda. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 55(6), 877–908.

Blattman, C. and Annan, J. (2010). The consequences of child soldiering. The Review of Rconomics and Statistics, 92(4), 882–898.

Cano, A. F. and Cervantes-Duarte, L. (2016). Impact of Armed Conflicts on Education and Educational Agents: A Multivocal Review. Revista Electrónica Educare, 20(3), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.15359/ree.20-3.12

Cerna, L. (2019). Refugee education: Integration models and practices in OECD countries. OECD Education Working Papers. https://doi.org/10.1787/a3251a00-en

Chamarbagwala, R. and Mor´an, H. E. (2011). The human capital consequences of civil war: Evidence from Guatemala. Journal of Development Economics, 94(1), 41–61.

GCPEA. (2015, December). Shcho Ministerstva mozhut zrobyty dlia zakhystu navchalnykh zakladiv vid napadiv ta vykorystannia u viiskovykh tsiliakh. Kompleks dii. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from http://protectingeducation.org/wp-content/uploads/what_ministries_can_do_ukr.pdf

GCPEA. (2016, September). Shcho mozhut zrobyty shkoly, shchob zakhystyty sebe vid napadiv ta vid vykorystannia u viiskykh tsiliakh. Praktychnyi posibnyk. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from http://protectingeducation.org/wp-content/uploads/what_schools_ukr.pdf

GCPEA. (2022, March 10). Statement by GCPEA Executive Director, Diya Nijhowne, on Attacks on Education in Ukraine. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://protectingeducation.org/news/statement-by-gcpea-executive-director-diya-nijhowne-on-attacks-on-education-in-ukraine/

Gerardino, M. P. (2014). The effect of violence on the educational gender gap. Unpublished manuscript.

Glasgow, J. N., & Baer, A. L. (2011). Lives beyond suffering: The child soldiers of African Wars. English Journal, 100(6), 68–77.

González L. H., & Bedmar M. (2012). Población infantil en situación de desplazamiento forzado en Colombia y sus manifiestaciones de ciudadanía [Children in situation of displacement in Colombia and its manifestations of citizenship]. Revista Paz y Conflictos, 5, 120–137. http://www.ugr.es/~revpaz/numeros/rpc_n5_2012_completo.pdf

GTZ. (2004, December 1). Education and conflict: The role of education in the creation, prevention and resolution of societal crises - Consequences for development cooperation. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://reliefweb.int/report/world/education-and-conflict-role-education-creation-prevention-and-resolution-societal

INEE. (2010, December 3). INEE Minimum Standards Handbook. https://inee.org/minimum-standards

Justino, P., Leone, M., and Salardi, P. (2013). Short-and long-term impact of violence on education: The case of Timor Leste. The World Bank Economic Review, 28(2), 320–353.

Kapor-Stanulovic, N. (1999). Encounter with suffering. American Psychologist, 54(11), 1020–1027. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0088215

Kesternich, I., Siflinger, B., Smith, J. P., and Winter, J. K. (2014). The effects of World War II on economic and health outcomes across Europe. Review of Economics and Statistics, 96(1), 103–118.

Leon, G. (2012). Civil conflict and human capital accumulation the long-term effects of political violence in Per´u. Journal of Human Resources, 47(4), 991–1022.

López, H., & Wodon, Q. (2005). The economic impact of armed conflict in Rwanda. Journal of African Economies, 14(4), 586-602. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jae/eji021

Massad, S. G., Nieto, F. J., Palta, M., Smith, M., Clark, R., & Thabet, A. A. (2012). Nutritional status of Palestinian preschoolers in the Gaza Strip: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 11, 12–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-27

Ministerstvo osvity i nauky Ukrainy. (2022). Osvita pid zahrozoiu. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://saveschools.in.ua/

Minoiu, C. and Shemyakina, O. N. (2014). Armed conflict, household victimization, and child health in Cˆote d’Ivoire. Journal of Development Economics, 108, 237–255.

Minou, T. (2006). The possible models of creative therapies for the child victims of war and armed conflict. Asia Pacific Education Review, 7(2), 229–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03031546

Namen, O., Prem, M., and Vargas, J. F. (2020). The human capital peace dividend. Technical report, Households in Conflict Network Working Paper.

Ofis Henprokurora Ukrainy. (2022, April 26). Yuvenalni prokurory: 226 ditei zahynuly v Ukraini cherez zbroinu ahresiiu RF. Retrieved May 11, 2022, from https://www.gp.gov.ua/

O’Malley, B. (2007). Education under attack, 2007: a global study on targeted political and military violence against education staff, students, teachers, union and government officials, and institutions. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000186303

O’Malley, B. (2010). Education under attack, 2010: a global study on targeted political and military violence against education staff, students, teachers, union and government officials, aid workers and institutions. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000186809

Parlow, A. (2011). Education and armed conflict: The Kashmir insurgency in the nineties. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/38010/

Pedersen, J., & Sommerfelt, T. (2007). Studying children in armed conflict: Data production, social indicators and analysis. Social Indicators Research, 84(3), 251–269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-007-9117-3

PRIO. (2020, November 23). Children Affected by Armed Conflict, 1990–2019. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/%C3%98stby%2C%20Rustad%20%26%20Tollefsen%20-%20Children%20Affected%20by%20Armed%20Conflict%2C%201990%E2%80%932019%20-%20Conflict%20Trends%206-2020.pdf

Rieder, M., & Choonara, I. (2012). Armed conflict and child health. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 97(1), 59–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.2009.178186

Roy, S. and Singh, P. (2016). Gender bias in education during conflict: Evidence from Assam. Technical report, WIDER Working Paper.

Safe Schools Declaration. (2015). Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/departementene/ud/vedlegg/utvikling/safe_schools_declaration.pdf

Shemyakina, O. (2011). The effect of armed conflict on accumulation of schooling: Results from Tajikistan. Journal of Development Economics, 95(2), 186–200.

Singh, P. and Shemyakina, O. N. (2016). Gender-differential effects of terrorism on education: The case of the 1981-1993 Punjab insurgency. Economics of Education Review, 54, 185–210.

Spitzer, H., & Twikirize, J. M. (2012). War-affected children in Northern Uganda: No easy path to normality. International Social Work, 56(1), 67–79. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020872812459067

Swee, E. L. (2015). On war intensity and schooling attainment: The case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. European Journal of Political Economy, 40, 158–172.

UNHCR. (2019). Refugee education 2030: A Strategy for Refugee Inclusion. https://www.unhcr.org/5d651da88d7.pdf

UNICEF. (2017, September 18). 27 million children out of school in conflict zones. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/27-million-children-out-school-conflict-zones

Valente, C. (2014). Education and civil conflict in Nepal. TheWorld Bank Economic Review, 28(2), 354–383.

Verwimp, P. and Van Bavel, J. (2014). Schooling, violent conflict, and gender in Burundi. The World Bank Economic Review, 28(2), 384–411.

Akbulut-Yuksel, M. (2014). Children of war: The long-run effects of large-scale physical destruction and warfare on children. Journal of Human Resources, 49(3), 634–662.

Akresh, R. and De Walque, D. (2008). Armed conflict and schooling: Evidence from the 1994 Rwandan genocide. The World Bank.

Akresh, R. et al. (2016). Climate change, conflict, and children. Technical report, Households in Conflict Network Working Paper.

Alfano, M. and Görlach, J.-S. (2019). Terrorism, education, and the role of perceptions: Evidence from al-Shabaab attacks in Kenya. Technical report, Households in Conflict Network Working Paper.

Annan, J., Blattman, C., Mazurana, D., and Carlson, K. (2011). Civil war, reintegration, and gender in Northern Uganda. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 55(6), 877–908.

Blattman, C. and Annan, J. (2010). The consequences of child soldiering. The Review of Rconomics and Statistics, 92(4), 882–898.

Cano, A. F. and Cervantes-Duarte, L. (2016). Impact of Armed Conflicts on Education and Educational Agents: A Multivocal Review. Revista Electrónica Educare, 20(3), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.15359/ree.20-3.12

Cerna, L. (2019). Refugee education: Integration models and practices in OECD countries. OECD Education Working Papers. https://doi.org/10.1787/a3251a00-en

Chamarbagwala, R. and Mor´an, H. E. (2011). The human capital consequences of civil war: Evidence from Guatemala. Journal of Development Economics, 94(1), 41–61.

GCPEA. (2015, December). Shcho Ministerstva mozhut zrobyty dlia zakhystu navchalnykh zakladiv vid napadiv ta vykorystannia u viiskovykh tsiliakh. Kompleks dii. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from http://protectingeducation.org/wp-content/uploads/what_ministries_can_do_ukr.pdf

GCPEA. (2016, September). Shcho mozhut zrobyty shkoly, shchob zakhystyty sebe vid napadiv ta vid vykorystannia u viiskykh tsiliakh. Praktychnyi posibnyk. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from http://protectingeducation.org/wp-content/uploads/what_schools_ukr.pdf

GCPEA. (2022, March 10). Statement by GCPEA Executive Director, Diya Nijhowne, on Attacks on Education in Ukraine. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://protectingeducation.org/news/statement-by-gcpea-executive-director-diya-nijhowne-on-attacks-on-education-in-ukraine/

Gerardino, M. P. (2014). The effect of violence on the educational gender gap. Unpublished manuscript.

Glasgow, J. N., & Baer, A. L. (2011). Lives beyond suffering: The child soldiers of African Wars. English Journal, 100(6), 68–77.

González L. H., & Bedmar M. (2012). Población infantil en situación de desplazamiento forzado en Colombia y sus manifiestaciones de ciudadanía [Children in situation of displacement in Colombia and its manifestations of citizenship]. Revista Paz y Conflictos, 5, 120–137. http://www.ugr.es/~revpaz/numeros/rpc_n5_2012_completo.pdf

GTZ. (2004, December 1). Education and conflict: The role of education in the creation, prevention and resolution of societal crises - Consequences for development cooperation. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://reliefweb.int/report/world/education-and-conflict-role-education-creation-prevention-and-resolution-societal

INEE. (2010, December 3). INEE Minimum Standards Handbook. https://inee.org/minimum-standards

Justino, P., Leone, M., and Salardi, P. (2013). Short-and long-term impact of violence on education: The case of Timor Leste. The World Bank Economic Review, 28(2), 320–353.

Kapor-Stanulovic, N. (1999). Encounter with suffering. American Psychologist, 54(11), 1020–1027. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0088215

Kesternich, I., Siflinger, B., Smith, J. P., and Winter, J. K. (2014). The effects of World War II on economic and health outcomes across Europe. Review of Economics and Statistics, 96(1), 103–118.

Leon, G. (2012). Civil conflict and human capital accumulation the long-term effects of political violence in Per´u. Journal of Human Resources, 47(4), 991–1022.

López, H., & Wodon, Q. (2005). The economic impact of armed conflict in Rwanda. Journal of African Economies, 14(4), 586-602. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jae/eji021

Massad, S. G., Nieto, F. J., Palta, M., Smith, M., Clark, R., & Thabet, A. A. (2012). Nutritional status of Palestinian preschoolers in the Gaza Strip: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 11, 12–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-27

Ministerstvo osvity i nauky Ukrainy. (2022). Osvita pid zahrozoiu. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://saveschools.in.ua/

Minoiu, C. and Shemyakina, O. N. (2014). Armed conflict, household victimization, and child health in Cˆote d’Ivoire. Journal of Development Economics, 108, 237–255.

Minou, T. (2006). The possible models of creative therapies for the child victims of war and armed conflict. Asia Pacific Education Review, 7(2), 229–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03031546

Namen, O., Prem, M., and Vargas, J. F. (2020). The human capital peace dividend. Technical report, Households in Conflict Network Working Paper.

Ofis Henprokurora Ukrainy. (2022, April 26). Yuvenalni prokurory: 226 ditei zahynuly v Ukraini cherez zbroinu ahresiiu RF. Retrieved May 11, 2022, from https://www.gp.gov.ua/

O’Malley, B. (2007). Education under attack, 2007: a global study on targeted political and military violence against education staff, students, teachers, union and government officials, and institutions. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000186303

O’Malley, B. (2010). Education under attack, 2010: a global study on targeted political and military violence against education staff, students, teachers, union and government officials, aid workers and institutions. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000186809

Parlow, A. (2011). Education and armed conflict: The Kashmir insurgency in the nineties. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/38010/

Pedersen, J., & Sommerfelt, T. (2007). Studying children in armed conflict: Data production, social indicators and analysis. Social Indicators Research, 84(3), 251–269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-007-9117-3

PRIO. (2020, November 23). Children Affected by Armed Conflict, 1990–2019. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/%C3%98stby%2C%20Rustad%20%26%20Tollefsen%20-%20Children%20Affected%20by%20Armed%20Conflict%2C%201990%E2%80%932019%20-%20Conflict%20Trends%206-2020.pdf

Rieder, M., & Choonara, I. (2012). Armed conflict and child health. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 97(1), 59–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.2009.178186

Roy, S. and Singh, P. (2016). Gender bias in education during conflict: Evidence from Assam. Technical report, WIDER Working Paper.

Safe Schools Declaration. (2015). Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/departementene/ud/vedlegg/utvikling/safe_schools_declaration.pdf

Shemyakina, O. (2011). The effect of armed conflict on accumulation of schooling: Results from Tajikistan. Journal of Development Economics, 95(2), 186–200.

Singh, P. and Shemyakina, O. N. (2016). Gender-differential effects of terrorism on education: The case of the 1981-1993 Punjab insurgency. Economics of Education Review, 54, 185–210.

Spitzer, H., & Twikirize, J. M. (2012). War-affected children in Northern Uganda: No easy path to normality. International Social Work, 56(1), 67–79. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020872812459067

Swee, E. L. (2015). On war intensity and schooling attainment: The case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. European Journal of Political Economy, 40, 158–172.

UNHCR. (2019). Refugee education 2030: A Strategy for Refugee Inclusion. https://www.unhcr.org/5d651da88d7.pdf

UNICEF. (2017, September 18). 27 million children out of school in conflict zones. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/27-million-children-out-school-conflict-zones

Valente, C. (2014). Education and civil conflict in Nepal. TheWorld Bank Economic Review, 28(2), 354–383.

Verwimp, P. and Van Bavel, J. (2014). Schooling, violent conflict, and gender in Burundi. The World Bank Economic Review, 28(2), 384–411.

Akbulut-Yuksel, M. (2014). Children of war: The long-run effects of large-scale physical destruction and warfare on children. Journal of Human Resources, 49(3), 634–662.

Akresh, R. and De Walque, D. (2008). Armed conflict and schooling: Evidence from the 1994 Rwandan genocide. The World Bank.

Akresh, R. et al. (2016). Climate change, conflict, and children. Technical report, Households in Conflict Network Working Paper.

Alfano, M. and Görlach, J.-S. (2019). Terrorism, education, and the role of perceptions: Evidence from al-Shabaab attacks in Kenya. Technical report, Households in Conflict Network Working Paper.

Annan, J., Blattman, C., Mazurana, D., and Carlson, K. (2011). Civil war, reintegration, and gender in Northern Uganda. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 55(6), 877–908.

Blattman, C. and Annan, J. (2010). The consequences of child soldiering. The Review of Rconomics and Statistics, 92(4), 882–898.

Cano, A. F. and Cervantes-Duarte, L. (2016). Impact of Armed Conflicts on Education and Educational Agents: A Multivocal Review. Revista Electrónica Educare, 20(3), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.15359/ree.20-3.12

Cerna, L. (2019). Refugee education: Integration models and practices in OECD countries. OECD Education Working Papers. https://doi.org/10.1787/a3251a00-en

Chamarbagwala, R. and Mor´an, H. E. (2011). The human capital consequences of civil war: Evidence from Guatemala. Journal of Development Economics, 94(1), 41–61.

GCPEA. (2015, December). Shcho Ministerstva mozhut zrobyty dlia zakhystu navchalnykh zakladiv vid napadiv ta vykorystannia u viiskovykh tsiliakh. Kompleks dii. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from http://protectingeducation.org/wp-content/uploads/what_ministries_can_do_ukr.pdf

GCPEA. (2016, September). Shcho mozhut zrobyty shkoly, shchob zakhystyty sebe vid napadiv ta vid vykorystannia u viiskykh tsiliakh. Praktychnyi posibnyk. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from http://protectingeducation.org/wp-content/uploads/what_schools_ukr.pdf

GCPEA. (2022, March 10). Statement by GCPEA Executive Director, Diya Nijhowne, on Attacks on Education in Ukraine. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://protectingeducation.org/news/statement-by-gcpea-executive-director-diya-nijhowne-on-attacks-on-education-in-ukraine/

Gerardino, M. P. (2014). The effect of violence on the educational gender gap. Unpublished manuscript.

Glasgow, J. N., & Baer, A. L. (2011). Lives beyond suffering: The child soldiers of African Wars. English Journal, 100(6), 68–77.

González L. H., & Bedmar M. (2012). Población infantil en situación de desplazamiento forzado en Colombia y sus manifiestaciones de ciudadanía [Children in situation of displacement in Colombia and its manifestations of citizenship]. Revista Paz y Conflictos, 5, 120–137. http://www.ugr.es/~revpaz/numeros/rpc_n5_2012_completo.pdf

GTZ. (2004, December 1). Education and conflict: The role of education in the creation, prevention and resolution of societal crises - Consequences for development cooperation. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://reliefweb.int/report/world/education-and-conflict-role-education-creation-prevention-and-resolution-societal

INEE. (2010, December 3). INEE Minimum Standards Handbook. https://inee.org/minimum-standards

Justino, P., Leone, M., and Salardi, P. (2013). Short-and long-term impact of violence on education: The case of Timor Leste. The World Bank Economic Review, 28(2), 320–353.

Kapor-Stanulovic, N. (1999). Encounter with suffering. American Psychologist, 54(11), 1020–1027. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0088215

Kesternich, I., Siflinger, B., Smith, J. P., and Winter, J. K. (2014). The effects of World War II on economic and health outcomes across Europe. Review of Economics and Statistics, 96(1), 103–118.

Leon, G. (2012). Civil conflict and human capital accumulation the long-term effects of political violence in Per´u. Journal of Human Resources, 47(4), 991–1022.

López, H., & Wodon, Q. (2005). The economic impact of armed conflict in Rwanda. Journal of African Economies, 14(4), 586-602. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jae/eji021

Massad, S. G., Nieto, F. J., Palta, M., Smith, M., Clark, R., & Thabet, A. A. (2012). Nutritional status of Palestinian preschoolers in the Gaza Strip: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 11, 12–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-27

Ministerstvo osvity i nauky Ukrainy. (2022). Osvita pid zahrozoiu. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://saveschools.in.ua/

Minoiu, C. and Shemyakina, O. N. (2014). Armed conflict, household victimization, and child health in Cˆote d’Ivoire. Journal of Development Economics, 108, 237–255.

Minou, T. (2006). The possible models of creative therapies for the child victims of war and armed conflict. Asia Pacific Education Review, 7(2), 229–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03031546

Namen, O., Prem, M., and Vargas, J. F. (2020). The human capital peace dividend. Technical report, Households in Conflict Network Working Paper.

Ofis Henprokurora Ukrainy. (2022, April 26). Yuvenalni prokurory: 226 ditei zahynuly v Ukraini cherez zbroinu ahresiiu RF. Retrieved May 11, 2022, from https://www.gp.gov.ua/

O’Malley, B. (2007). Education under attack, 2007: a global study on targeted political and military violence against education staff, students, teachers, union and government officials, and institutions. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000186303

O’Malley, B. (2010). Education under attack, 2010: a global study on targeted political and military violence against education staff, students, teachers, union and government officials, aid workers and institutions. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000186809

Parlow, A. (2011). Education and armed conflict: The Kashmir insurgency in the nineties. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/38010/

Pedersen, J., & Sommerfelt, T. (2007). Studying children in armed conflict: Data production, social indicators and analysis. Social Indicators Research, 84(3), 251–269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11205-007-9117-3

PRIO. (2020, November 23). Children Affected by Armed Conflict, 1990–2019. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/%C3%98stby%2C%20Rustad%20%26%20Tollefsen%20-%20Children%20Affected%20by%20Armed%20Conflict%2C%201990%E2%80%932019%20-%20Conflict%20Trends%206-2020.pdf

Rieder, M., & Choonara, I. (2012). Armed conflict and child health. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 97(1), 59–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.2009.178186

Roy, S. and Singh, P. (2016). Gender bias in education during conflict: Evidence from Assam. Technical report, WIDER Working Paper.

Safe Schools Declaration. (2015). Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/departementene/ud/vedlegg/utvikling/safe_schools_declaration.pdf

Shemyakina, O. (2011). The effect of armed conflict on accumulation of schooling: Results from Tajikistan. Journal of Development Economics, 95(2), 186–200.

Singh, P. and Shemyakina, O. N. (2016). Gender-differential effects of terrorism on education: The case of the 1981-1993 Punjab insurgency. Economics of Education Review, 54, 185–210.

Spitzer, H., & Twikirize, J. M. (2012). War-affected children in Northern Uganda: No easy path to normality. International Social Work, 56(1), 67–79. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020872812459067

Swee, E. L. (2015). On war intensity and schooling attainment: The case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. European Journal of Political Economy, 40, 158–172.

UNHCR. (2019). Refugee education 2030: A Strategy for Refugee Inclusion. https://www.unhcr.org/5d651da88d7.pdf

UNICEF. (2017, September 18). 27 million children out of school in conflict zones. Retrieved May 5, 2022, from https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/27-million-children-out-school-conflict-zones

Valente, C. (2014). Education and civil conflict in Nepal. TheWorld Bank Economic Review, 28(2), 354–383.

Verwimp, P. and Van Bavel, J. (2014). Schooling, violent conflict, and gender in Burundi. The World Bank Economic Review, 28(2), 384–411.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.